Posted - 08 Jan 2006 : 23:38:43
My dear Brothers and Sisters -in- Faith,
Below you will find the Khutbah(sermon)our beloved Prophet(on whom be the peace and blessing of Allah)delivered on the Plains of ARAFAT
over 1426 years ago.On Monday 9th January,2006,Pilgrims at the Hajj will hear the same khutbah.Grown-up-men and women,believing men and believing women will cry uncontrollably,asking,begging God for mercy,for forgiveness and asking God for the ultimate,which to all Muslims is admission to Paradise.I will leave you in peace to read it,think seriously about its contents and accordingly shape your life to live your life within its teaching.
Prophet Muhammad's Last Sermon
After praising and thanking Allah the Prophet said:
"O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that he will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn 'Abd'al Muttalib [the Prophet's uncle] be waived. Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived and the first such right that i waive is that arising from the murder of Rabiah ibn al Harithibn.
O People, the unbelievers indulge in tampering with the /000000000 in order to make permissible that which Allah forbade, and to forbid that which Allah has made permissible. With Allah the months are twelve in number. Four of them are holy, three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumada and Shaban.
Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope of that he will be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right, then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with anyone of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste. O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers, fast during the month of Ramadhan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.
All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black nor a black has any superiority over a white - except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belogs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not therefore do injustice to yourselves. Remember one day you will meet Allah and answer your deeds. So beware: do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, no prophet or apostle will come after me, and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand my words which I convey to you.
I leave behind me two things, the Qur'an and my Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed Your message to Your people."
In international communication and Globalization, Oliver Boyd- Barrett stated that cultural studies has a great deal to offer in the study of how global texts work at a local level…The prophet Muhammad directed his last speech to all mankind. He was addressing his speech to the loving and the sincere Muslims who were with him at that that time, but he was speaking to all mankind. He was speaking to all mankind through those Muslims. For this reason He said to them: O people or O mankind. He used this terminology eight times in the same speech. He never used the terminology of: O Muslim! Or even O Believers! His message was and is still to every person everywhere in the world irrespective of his religious or political affiliation.
The universal values of the last sermon of the prophet Muhammad are:
· Equality of Mankind
The message that the prophet delivered, included a very important concept, i.e., equality of mankind. People are equal in the sight of ALLAH and in front of the law. The prophet stated that “ no Arab has any privilege over a non-Arab, except that based on piety.”
· Declaration of Human Rights
The charter of the UN on Human Rights was written in the 40’s, but the human rights in Islam were recognized, declared and excuted for over 1400 years. Every place one reads in the farewell Sermon of the Prophet Muhammad, will find clearly the declaration of human rights. This declaration is summarized as follows:
1. Freedom to all
2. Sanctity of life, wealth and property
3. Equality of all races
4. Justice in front of the law and in front of ALLAH
5. Women’s rights and obligations. They were to be treated as partners but not as subjects.
6. No exploitation or monopoly. The rich is not to be richer while the poor is to be poorer.
7. Rights of others are to be preserved and to be delivered.
8. People are to take this declaration seriously, they are to preach it and to practice it too, every where they go or move.
· Sanctity of Life and Property
The sanctity of life and property was pronounced clearly by the prophet in his farewell speech. People are to be protected, their lives are to be preserved and their properties are to be saved.
· Abolition of Usury
The concept of economic exploitation is totally prohibited in Islam. Usury is a form of economic exploitation, therefore, Islam prohibited this type of business. Because of such economic monopoly and exploitation in a capitalistic system, the rich will become richer and the poor will become poorer.
· Rights and Duties of Women
In his farewell speech, the prophet Muhammad spelled out the best declaration for women’s rights. He demanded that the husbands should treat the wives with kindness and gentleness. Men are to know that their women are their partners. The prophet recognized the duties and the responsibilities of both partners and emphasized that the man is the HEAD, while the women is the HEART of the family.
In their book, Leadership A Communication perspective, M. Z. Hackman and C. E. Johnson described the democratic leader’ communication style that the leader encourages the followers participation and involvement in determination of the goals and procedures. The democratic leader realizes that the followers are capable of making informed decisions. Democratic leader does not get intimidated by the suggestions provided by the followers but believes that the contributions of others would improve the overall quality of the decision making.
In situations that there were no instructions from ALLAH to Prophet Muhammad, the prophet used to ask his followers about their opinions in the matter. For example, during one of the battles, a follower advised the prophet to change the location of the Muslim troops. When the prophet realized that the suggestion of the follower would benefit their fighting the enemy, he asked the troops to change their location to the follower’s suggested one.
The prophet message of Islam was intended to the Arabs at the seventh century but to all mankind at all times. He took advantage of the peace treaty between him and Quraish tribe, his main enemy, and sent ambassadors to the world leaders at his time. He informed them about the message of Islam. Most of these leaders responded positively except one.
The prophet Muhammad was supremely successful on both the religious and secular level. There are sayings from the prophet related to every activities that the person might encounter during the day or the night. Islam is a way of life.
The farewell speech of the prophet Muhammad was directed to all mankind at all times and for all generations. He laid down the foundation of morality, justice, equality, brotherhood, and accountability. He abolished economic exploitation, human enslavement.
He demanded that the congregating Muslims should deliver his message to all mankind. Accordingly, they did deliver the message. For this reason, the message of Islam has spread through the centuries to every corner in the world. The number of the Muslims has exceeded one billion people.