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Posted - 13 Dec 2013 :  20:07:26  Show Profile Send kobo a Private Message

Foroyaa Burning Issues News: Published on Friday, 13 December 2013

9TH December 2013

Having been invited to an experts meeting on the Senegambia conflict zone organised by ECOWAS from 2 to 4 December 2013, at Ndiambour Hotel in Dakar, Senegal, as a researcher who has written a paper entitled “Conflict In The Sene Gambia Zone: Causes, Implications and Options For Management and Resolution,” which was published by CODESRIA and which I will transform into a book after some updating of developments, the Central Committee of PDOIS advised, after receiving a briefing on developments at the meeting, that this press conference be held to share the key observations and recommendations with the Gambian population through the media which is the key instrument for amplifying the voices of all sectors of society and to further address any burning issue that is of interest to the Nation, the sub region and the world.

Allow me to begin by calling for a minute silence to pay respect to a man, who is still with us though not in his physical form. He has lived a life that could be taken as an example of best practice in modern day leadership. Having suffered incarceration for 27 years he could have remained in power for life but chose to hand over power when he had all the popular support to rely on to retain it. I am talking about Nelson Madela.

He had the opportunity to live a luxurious life while the people remained in chains but preferred to face death and imprisonment so that the chains of indignity, oppression, humiliation and degradation would be broken for good.

After liberty was attained he went further than any leader of the struggle for self determination and independence to pioneer the second phase of national liberation which has the strategic objective of affirming the sovereignty of the people. Nelson Mandela struggled to build a nation where every citizen is sovereign and where no one is discriminated on the basis of colour, gender, ethno-linguistic origin or creed.

He has built a nation, which despite its imperfections could never ever allow a leader to emerge again who will rule like a demi god above the people. His death which has made the whole world to assemble in the spirit of celebrating the eternal values of truth, justice and reconciliation is the beginning of a new era, the era for the realisation and consolidation of Republican values, Democratic instruments, Democratic Institutions and Democratic culture in each African country, the values that Mandela lived for and for which he was ready to die.

He is resting in peace but would do so more comfortably if we build the type of country he envisaged to build in his honour, a society where the people know no fear, no poverty, no indignity, no oppression, no humiliation, no marginalisation, no impunity; a society that guarantees them liberty dignity and prosperity. We find consolation in the fact that just a day before he went to rest in the world of the martyrs experts from the ECOWAS states came up with the profound observations and Recommendations that would have made Nelson Mandela proud that his legacy would live forever and would shape the direction of the continent in the twenty first century

If a summary of what I have said is to be done by the media I would like the public to be told that the leader of the Gambia in particular and the sub-region in general have two urgent problems to tackle with immediacy. I have made it clear to the Central Committee that ECOWAS Technocrats must be congratulated for their foresight in holding the experts meeting on conflicts in the Senegambia Zone and came up with the right perspectives before the holding of the Franco African Summit on peace and security. I pointed out to the Committee that after the French intervention in Mali while the African leaders procrastinated, none of them has any moral authority to criticise French intervention as neo colonial in design.

Any such criticism would amount to empty words in the ears of the people of the continent. I emphasised that the Franco African Summit for Peace and Security was called to give legitimacy to any French intervention to enforce peace on the continent and nothing could be a greater endorsement than the presence of at least 40 heads of state from the African Continent.

I therefore observed that if France succeeds in Central Africa Republic , its intervention in Casamance should be expected if war breaks out again and if this is what would put the Casamance conflict to an end the leaders would deserve to hang their heads in shame for not being able to solve regional conflicts on their own.

At least the PDOIS leadership would not be counted among such African leaders We know that while Rev. Diamacoune had referred to the Franco Portuguese convention of Paris of 12 May 1886 that handed over Lower Casamance to the French as justification of different colonial experience with Northern Senegal, the Anglo French agreement of 1889 did demarcate the border between Senegal and Gambia which continue to be properly delineated by subsequent agreements, that now serves as the border of the two independent states as agreed by the OAU.

Hence there are enough historical facts to determine the status of Casamance if there are honest mediators. PDOIS has made it clear that Casamance is rich with natural and mineral resources and her children who are now serving as maids in neighbouring countries could be serving as waiters and in the room service sectors in hotels in Casamance that would certainly grow with tourism in a peaceful Casamance.

The Children of Refugees could become teachers in new schools; nurses and doctors in new hospitals, builders, technicians and technocrats of all sorts in a blossoming economy underpinned by democratic instruments and institutions and culture that protect their liberty, dignity and prosperity. This is the way forward that the experts identified and which should be embraced by the leadership of the sub region.

The second task for the Gambian leadership and that of the Sub-region is to embrace and promote Republican values, democratic instruments, Institutions and culture. Those in power should exercise it to protect the people, accommodate the opposition as government out of office, create a free atmosphere for fair multiparty contest and encourage freedom of expression for all to participate in governance either as actors or umpires in calling those doing wrong to order.

We therefore call on the Gambia Government to engage the Gambian opposition in a constructive dialogue, pose no obstacle to their operations in the country, protect and respect their Party activists without whom no party could grow and utilise alternative dispute resolution measures to resolve interparty conflicts or legal issues that are borne of political confrontation or initiatives.

The Government should know that any party that cannot protect its activists in their attempt to campaign and win support by lawful means is a dead party.

Hence no opposition party would sit idly by and allow its activists to be intimidated and discouraged. All opposition parties are capable of making noise under the law. No law stops an opposition party for applying for permit to hold procession or demonstrate against any injustice perpetrated against its activists.

If such permits are denied no party is deprived of going to court for an order to have its rights granted since section 25 subsection (1)(d) states that, “Every person shall have the right to freedom to assemble and demonstrate peaceably and without arms.”

Furthermore, nothing stops the supporters of parties crowding courts which of course would call for the posting of security forces at such places which gives the impression that a country is in a state of war. Mature political Parties want to be busy winning hearts and minds and not busy making noises to prove that they could not be bullied. The Gambian opposition has been criticised for waiting until it is close to elections to become active.

Now that parties are trying to be active they should not be antagonised. PDOIS calls on the head of state to review all cases that have political connotations and get his authorities to engage the opposition to resolve them in the name of promoting inter-party peace and reconciliation. PDOIS calls on all party activists irrespective of who they support to respect each other as sovereign citizens and allow each to support the party or personality of one’s choice and not use any derogatory remarks against any one for the exercise of choice.

People should freely attend the rallies of parties and listen to divergent views in order to form informed opinions to guide informed decisions.

ECOWAS has created four zones as conflict zones in order to be able to study the impact of conflicts in the sub-regional and develop strategies and priorities to address them . There is The Mano River Conflict Zone, the Gulf of Guinea Conflict Zone, The Sahel –Sahara Conflict Zone and the Sene-Gambia Conflict zone. The Senegambia Conflict Zone comprises Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde.

The experts shared information on the conflict between Senegal and Mali at independence which led to the collapse of the federation between the countries; the coup in Guinea Bissau in 1980 which led to a split in PAIGC with those from Cape Verde taking charge of their own destiny; the 1981 intervention of the Senegalese forces to suppress the coup in the Gambia and the after effects of the collapse of the Sene-Gambia Confederation; the 1982 uprising in Casamance which for 30 years is still unresolved and has transformed the area into a haven for illicit trade in drugs, weapons, natural resources and the trafficking of human beings and the outpour of refugees to neighbouring countries; the 1989 conflict between Senegal and Mauritania which led to refugees fleeing from both countries; the 1994 coup in Gambia which was tolerated by Senegal as a result of the breakup of the Senegambia confederation; the 1998 Civil war in Guinea Bissau which led to the intervention of both Senegal and Guinea Conakry in support of Veira who was later overthrown leading to transitions that has witnessed the murder of both Ansumana Manneh and Vierra and the transformation of Guinea Bissau into a Zone for illicit trade in drugs, weapons and other commodities. These facts were utilised to identify two major threats to peace and security in the Senegambia Zone.

The absence or fragility of Republican values, Democratic instruments, democratic institutions and democratic culture in countries is seen as a major cause of conflict in the Zone which leads to militarism that could take ideological or ethnic; religious or secular guise.

Hence, it is recommended that all states especially, the military and security apparatus, political parties, armed movements, civil associations and the people at large should embrace Republican values, democratic instruments, democratic institutions and democratic culture so that each citizen would take ownership of a state that protects him or her, guarantees him or her liberty, dignity and prosperity.

This is the only way to prevent exclusion and violent conflict and promote tolerance and acceptance of government base on consent and also facilitate democratic succession of political office. The PDOIS central Committee has embraced the recommendation. We have already started a deletion exercise on our register of members to remove the names of those who passed away or are no longer with us and register new members. This is to be completed by the end of January.

We will conduct civic and voter education with our members through community forums, seminars and workshops to ensure that all of them embrace republican and democratic values and know the democratic instruments, institutions and culture they need to uphold so that they could mobilise the masses on the basis of those values to build the type of country that Nelson Mandela envisaged but could not help to build in full which ECOWAS is now ready to propagate under its early warning agenda. We will be willing to cooperate with any opposition party on this score.

The Second source of conflict identified is the Casamance type where the legitimacy of a state over a territory is contested and a claim to Independence and self determination is made. It is already clear that old colonial borders are supposed to be the borders of Independent states.

Hence such claims are easy to settle by referring to historical records of the colonial administrations and such clarification should not be prolonged and could easily be attained through expert research and advice.

The experts observed that the conflict in Casamance, which has consigned the territory into a zone of ungovernability where the legitimacy of the Senegalese state is contested and where armed conflict leads to the outflow of refugees to neighbouring countries and the transformation of neighbouring countries into transit points for illicit trade in arms, commodities, drugs and providing safe haven for gangsters needs the urgent attention of ECOWAS and the Senegalese Government and he immediate neighbours, namely Gambia and Guinea Bissau.

It was made clear to the experts that the refugees of Casamance and the inhabitants resident in the war Zone are very vulnerable; that MFDC is not a classical liberation movement that starts to build the structures of the future state in liberated zones but functions like an armed opposition waiting to deliver services as and when it takes over the reign of state. It was made clear that the refugees suffer poverty and discrimination wherever they find themselves.

They are accused of acquiring national documents illegally like the 17 combatants who were arrested in the Gambia in 2010 after fleeing from a civil war among combatants with their rocket propelled grenades and other arms which they tried to hide in gardens in the Gambia.

It was added that since the rebels stated in court that they were put under duress before they revealed the location of their arm caches in the Gambia confirms that the control of the situation in Casamance is beyond the capacity of any individual state and calls for concerted action The experts recommended that The Government of Senegal should recognise the absence of the state in Casamance and adhere to its Republican values by transforming its security apparatus in Casamance into genuine protector of the lives and properties of the ordinary people in their places of deployment , offer basic services like health delivery, according to their capacity, maintain an engineering core that could build some schools and clinics to endear them to the population and then mobilise national and sub regional expertise to develop a comprehensive civil, political, economic, social, cultural and ecological development programme that would offer combatants who have accumulated financial resources opportunities to become economic entrepreneurs, develop the economics of scale that benefits all sectors of society, offer educated children of refugees in neighbouring countries jobs as nurses, teachers and further train others in other occupations so that they could have possibilities to live better lives as citizens of Senegal rather than as refugees in other countries PDOIS is also going to promote this agenda to enable the sub-region to solve the Casamance crisis.


On Taxation

PDOIS has made it clear that the militarisation of tax enforcement will only reduce business confidence and induce capital flight without attaining revenue targets. After arresting business persons who are living from hand to mouth and putting them in cells to force them to comply with tax obligations, without making adequate effort to review the tax regime to effect tax reform before enforcement, revenue still falls short of expenditure targets.

In delivering his speech on the laying of the estimates before the National Assembly, the Finance Minister made it clear that the approved fiscal deficit for 2013 was projected “to amount to 692 .7 Million Dalasis.

However by the end of 2013 the budget deficit is expected to rise to 2456 Million Dalasis. In 2014 , it is anticipated that the budget deficit will rise to 2877Million Dalasis.”
PDOIS is of the view that to offset this deficit without the expansion of the productive base of the economy, the tax base will be widened or domestic borrowing will increase. No wonder they are demanding for small scale enterprises of all categories to pay taxes.

The domestic debt has also increased to 11.3 Billion dalasis as of March 2013. With budget deficits rising to billions of dalasis per annum the domestic debt will also be skyrocketing by the billions unless the right government comes up with the right policies to develop the productive base and boost up sovereign national wealth.
With the principal on External loans alone rising to 763 billion dalasis one could forecast that if the domestic debt is added with all the interests due the country will certainly not be able to sustain its debts without unleashing economic hardship on the people

PDOIS proposes that Sovereign National wealth should be harnessed and public enterprises should be made to generate the dividend necessary to increase non tax revenue, reduce domestic borrowing, free the private banking system to promote private sector growth, enable the Central Bank to invest in the bond market to secure foreign reserves and strengthen the currency, repay loans on time and invest in infrastructure.

For years the PPP Government passed on Gambia as a poor groundnut producing country without minerals or oil resources. The APRC established the Gambia National Petroleum Company and promised that it is training dozens of Gambians in petroleum engineering, geology, geophysics and other petroleum related fields and had initiated collaboration with the Chinese Petroleum Company to get the experts who could help in establishing the petroleum sector in the Gambia. The Gambian people are yet to see the benefits. Needless to say, Gambia is endowed with mineral resources. The PPP Government never relied on it to accumulate sovereign national wealth for sustainable development.

The APRC government negotiated with Carnegie Minerals that did prospecting and mining trials in Brufut and Sanyang mineral deposits and eventually received licence to exploit mineral deposits within the coastal strip of Batakunku, Sanyang and Kartong. Now Carnegie is gone but little is known of the sovereign national wealth that is derived from mining heavy minerals such as ilmenite, rutile and zircon.

PDOIS has put it on the development agenda that no country could enjoy sustainable and self reliant development without accumulating sovereign National Wealth.

PDOIS will be transparent and accountable in building the mining sector in the Gambia to promote prosperity and sustainable development.

What the government of the first Republic could not do in 30 years and the APRC Government in almost 20 years, PDOIS will do in less than five years or be removed from office in the fifth year if it were to be elected under a normal mandate of two terms.

On Militarisation of determination of the exchange rate
We have emphasised that while a sum of 1.6 Billion dollars is exchanged in the Foreign Exchange Market annually earnings from export of goods and services in 2012 amounted to 92. 6 Million dollars.

It is evident that what is backing the local currency is not the low earning from exports but the lucrative trade in foreign currency which is associated with what we call a transit economy.

We indicated that a militarist approach in controlling the exchange rate would lead to the flight of capital and the impossibility of having sufficient foreign exchange to meet external obligations.

On the other hand, if the flexible exchange rate remains, the value of the dalasi would depreciate but there would be inflow of remittances and investment by at least Diaspora Gambians and their associates for sometime before the depreciation gets to an unsustainable state.

We have made it categorically clear that unless the Government could accumulate sovereign National wealth the value of the dalasi will be at the mercy of the vagaries of the foreign exchange market.

This is how matters stand today and this is why the exchange rate for the dollar, Euro, pound and CFA has appreciated against the dalasi. The dollar is now above 38 dalasis, the pound above D62, the Euro above D53 and the CFA above D395.

The Minister of finance has confirmed this in his presentation of the estimates in the following words: “Depreciation pressures on the Gambian Dalasi emerged following low exports from the below average harvest in 2012, increase in domestic debt, less donor inflows. Since end 2012, the Dalasi has depreciated 11 percent against the US dollar, 12 percent against the Euro and 9 percent against the British pound sterling.”

On the Youth
It is estimated that 67 percent of the population is under 25 and 47 percent are between the age of 13 and 30 years. By 2010 the number of children in our primary schools rose to 227,668. The number in the upper basic school rose to 41,493 and the number in our senior secondary schools rose to 36,141.

Every twelve years one expects more than 300,000 children to be put in the street by our school system. The labour laws require a documentation of the employment status of those at employable age but this legal dictate has been honoured with disregard by the APRC.

However, it is acknowledged that inflation is rising and the only employment it seems to be offering is calling on the youth to go back to the land without any credible agricultural policy that would enable farmers to be middle income earners.

In PDOIS Agenda 2016 we will show how farmers could become middle income earners. What is clear is that unemployment is high, wages and salaries of most workers are low and poverty is rising. In fact, the latest statistics that we came across states that those living below the poverty line amount to 61.2 percent of the population.
We will wait for the budget speech to find out whether there is any update of the figure.

International Relations
As late as 2005 the Gambia Government issued the following statement on bilateral relation: “The Gambia has continued to receive assistance from various bilateral partners in different areas of development.

The Gambia Government would like to recognise the contribution of the United Kingdom, Egypt, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, The United States of America, France, Republic of China Taiwan, Iran, Italy, Kingdom of Netherlands, Kingdom of Belgium, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Qatar.

We applaud their assistance and sacrifice to the Gambia as we look forward to further cooperation “
Today, the UK and USA are accused of plots. France has closed its embassy; Taiwan and Iran are gone; Germany, Netherlands, Belgium and Italy are all part of the EU whose relation with the Government is still waiting for reinvention.

We need a Government that could build bridges to connect the Gambia to the world as an example to be partnered with and not as a foe to be isolated.

This is why PDOIS Is committed to Republican and secular values that protect all sovereign persons irrespective of their religion, gender, colour, ethno-linguistic origin or other social status. PDOIS is willing to go further to promote African unity by setting up a commission of jurists along with Senegal to work out ways and means of harmonising republican values, democratic constitutions, institutions and culture and further promote economic integration, of the two countries as a model for the continent.

The CommonWealth
The Gambia Government withdrew from the Commonwealth under the pretext that it represents colonial domination. UN Security Council is also post world war architecture. However the Gambia is still a part of the UN.

The Gambia Government also participated in the recently held Franco African Summit for Peace and Security even though the objective is to legitimise French Intervention to enforce peace. PDOIS has not come across any legitimate reason for withdrawing from the Commonwealth and would restore Gambia’s membership and use the institution to promote Republican values , Democratic instruments, institutions and culture in contrast to monarchical ones. We challenge the APRC government to do the same.

On the Opposition and the political environment Status of the IEC Chairman
The PDOIS Central Committee took note of the fact that the Government is still turning a blind eye to the question of the expiry of term of office of the current Chairman of the IEC. The integrity of the electoral system could not be guaranteed unless this issue is either addressed by the person, the Government or the courts.

This is a key question in the electoral reform Agenda and since it is a concern of all opposition parties the interparty committee could be convened to discuss it and if unresolved ECOWAS and AU involvement could be sought to address the problem or court action be taken by concerned parties, as a matter of last resort.

PDOIS is willing to cooperate with all concerned parties to address this problem.

On being Head of the Civil Service and Secretary General of a Party
It is observed that the Constitution is being honoured with disregard by the executive in appointing the head of the civil service to the post of Secretary General of the APRC in contravention to Section 170 subsection 1 of the Constitution which states that “A person holding an office in the public service should not hold office in any party.”

PDOIS is willing to discuss this matter with other parties at the level of the interparty Committee and to proceed to seek ECOWAS and AU involvement or go to court for a declaration on the Constitutionality of the appointment.

On Conflict Between Party Supporters
The PDOIS Central Committee did review the case of Bai Mass Kah after the facts were known upon his release on bail.

It is its candid view that argument between supporters of different parties that have political connotations is a matter for the interparty committee to handle to promote tolerance of political diversity and peaceful resolution of disputes. A member of the PDOIS leadership has been called names published in the front page of Daily Observer.

The state has nothing to teach by displaying a might, that people know it has and could be used by anybody in power, be it President Jawara of the first Republic or President Jammeh of the Second Republic, in case of politically charged arguments. What needs to be driven home is that since political leaders show respect to each other when they meet their supporters should also do the same and try to win each other’s hearts and minds rather than antagonise each other.

The PDOIS leadership reviewed all the steps taken by the Secretary General to address this problem and endorsed all the initiatives. Since it is a case that is still in court further details of the mature steps taken after the incident will be revealed after the case is concluded.

On The Arrest Of UDP Supporters
Freedom of Association is guaranteed under the Constitution and the Public Order Act requires people to get a permit if they are to hold processions, demonstrations or meetings where a public address system is to be utilised.

However, to meet in compounds, Community Centres, parks, play grounds or traditional meeting places do not require the issuing of a permit. What is required is to maintain the peace and respect the rights of others.

For example if other people are present in a traditional meeting place who are not interested in a discussion one must respect their right to have access to the place without being involved in a discussion or be interrupted by it. Hence it would be better to change venue unless one has a permit to hold an official meeting at the place to avoid conflict which may lead to public disorder. Needless to say, conflict between party activists should be handled through alternative dispute resolution measures such as discussion at an interparty committee meeting.

The Elections Act is clear. It states that “Political parties may be established to participate in the shaping of the political will of the people, to disseminate information of political ideas and on political, economic, and social programmes of a national character and to sponsor Candidates for public elections.”

Party Activists are therefore free at all times to propagate the interest of their political parties. Hence no UDP party activist in particular or that of other opposition Parties in general should be obstructed from conducting their normal party activities.

PDOIS is ready to extend hands of cooperation to other parties to ensure that party activists are not subjected to unlawful arrests and detention which could undermine their resolve to serve their parties.. The Secretary General is mandated to contact the leader of the UDP to find out the details of the case of its activists and map out a case by case cooperation agreement on how to collectively handle such matters to promote tolerance of political diversity and create greater security for and protection of party activists without whom no party could survive and grow in support.

The tolerance shown to party activists by state officials and members of the disciplined force is an indication of the level of commitment of a state to democratic values and genuine multi party politics. Intolerance shown to party activists is a demonstration of a government s intention to establish a de facto one party state that should be exposed and opposed. Security officers are duty bound to do what the law says in order to promote good governance and preserve their integrity as enforcers of the law. No security officer should detain any one for more than three hours without giving him or her access to a legal counsel and for more than 72 hours without releasing him or her on bail or take him or her before a court.

Members of the disciplined force are expected not to be hard or soft on the opposition. They are just expected to be neutral, fair and just.

The Duty of Government
The executive is trustee of state power and not its owner. It has the duty to administer state power in a humane, fair, just, transparent and accountable manner. Its duty as a government is to protect and not to coerce any member of society.

We have identified four approaches that a government could have towards the opposition. It could be accommodative and open up state institutions like Radio Stations, Television Stations, Newspapers and other organs for the dissemination of divergent views and dissenting opinion as what obtains in Senegal today. Under such a political climate a genuine multi party system could be nurtured if both sides are mature, that would allow the freest level of political expression and association that is guarded by respect and upholding of just law and good faith.

The second approach is to tolerate opposition parties. Under such circumstances nothing is done to obstruct parties from establishing their own institutions under the law to promote their activities and nothing is done to obstruct party activities from conducting their normal Party activities under the law. Most African countries that are free from conflict are operating within the two frameworks highlighted above.

Thirdly, a Government could be hostile to the opposition and deprives it any breeding ground to take over power. This leads to a situation of permanent conflict that reduces the country into a failed state as is now the case in Syria.

The last approach is to have a Government that does not allow the existence of a legal opposition. Hence all those who oppose a government must join armed groups as was the case in Libya and Zaire under Mobutu.

Hence political succession is left to be decided by war rather than by peaceful means. PDOIS is advising the government to adhere to the first two approaches by embracing political reform. To promote such approaches PDOIS became a part of the group of six and Gambia Opposition for Electoral Reform, GOFER.

We were hoping that through non participation the success of Independent candidates or absence of voting would teach the APRC that its support base is either eroding or could not be gauged and thus compel it to work for electoral reform to restore integrity.

We had hoped that by now we would have had to meet Reverend Jesse Jackson in the states to get an update and hold a joint press Conference to map out a way forward. We could have taken joint measures by now to address the question hanging over the tenure of the IEC Chairman, table an electoral reform agenda and involve the guarantor of the Interparty committee, ECOWAS and AU on Such matters.

The least we expected from the government is to concede to the restoration of the Second round of voting, removal of the upper age restriction to political Participation because of its discriminatory nature, ensuring the neutrality of public servants and security personnel when carrying out their duties, restrict state resources for public and not party use, reform the laws on registering voters to ensure proper scrutiny and conduct a registration exercise before the next electoral cycle, demarcate the constituency boundaries in a fair and just manner and open the state media to divergent views.

Now PDOIS has to accept the decision of other parties that are focused on holding rallies without promoting a common programme or common candidate and respect their choice to pursue their own strategies. PDOIS is of the view that campaigning is to sell a programme or a candidate. We will campaign to sell our programme to the people, select a Candidate by 2014 and sell our candidate to the people; put up the candidate if there is second round of voting and develop a formula with other parties to select one candidate if there is no electoral reform. In the interim, the party deems it wise to sign cooperation agreement s with other parties to promote electoral reform and take concerted action to provide a secure environment for party activists to function and create an atmosphere conducive to genuine multiparty activities and contest.

This is the way forward People’s Democratic Organisation For Independence and Socialism P O BOX 2306 Serre Kunda The Gambia E Mail:



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Edited by - kobo on 13 Dec 2013 21:58:42
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